Controlling RHEL 7 Services

One change from RHEL/CentOS 6 to the RHEL 7 beta is how services are controlled. The old service and chkconfig commands are replaced with systemctl. These are my quick and dirty notes compiled from the Fedora Project systemd and SysVinit to Systemd Cheatsheet pages.

Basic Control

The old system command’s replacement is very similar, with services having .service appended:

systemctl start|stop|restart|status name.service

For example:

systemctl restart httpd.service

Service Boot time Control

To get a list of available services and their boot time status:

systemctl list-unit-files --type=service

To set a service to start (or not) at boot time:

systemctl enable|disable <em>service</em>.service

For example:

systemctl enable mariadb.service
systemctl enable httpd.service

Run Levels

Run levels are called targets, have been simplified, and have names now. An incomplete list:

  1. (run level 0)
  2. (single-user mode; run level 1)
  3. (normal run level 3)
  4. (normal run level 5)

To set the default run level:

systemctl set-default

To change the run level:

systemctl isolate

For example, to enter single user mode:

systemctl isolate

And the appropriate services will be stopped and started.

Additional Reading

  • A description of how systemd fits into the boot process here.
  • Another nice summary here.


Updated setting the default run level per CertDepot’s suggestion. Added the “Additional Reading” section.
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Display a Server-Supplied Drop Down List Using AngularJS

These are my notes on displaying a list of server-supplied objects in a drop down list using AngularJS.


I have a server that supplies lists of lookup objects that are used in an AngularJS-based single-page application (SPA). The SPA obtains a list through an API call to the server. The server returns an ordered list of JSON objects. Every object in every list includes a key value, a display value, and supplementary data. For the purposes of this article, only the key and display values are of any concern.

For example, the SPA needs a list of units of measure. The server supplies a list of objects along these lines. They key value is called code and the display value is called display:

        code: "L",
        display: "L",
        description: "litres"
        code: "ML",
        display: "mL",
        description: "millilitres"
    ... etc ...

In the SPA code, each lookup table is wrapped in its own Angular service.

From List of Objects to Dropdown Using <select>

Angular can be told to create a dropdown list using an array of objects thus:

<select ng-model="product.uom"
        ng-options="u.display for u in units" />

Here ng-options tells Angular to build the dropdown list showing the display attribute of each object. Whenever the user chooses an item, the entire associated object is stored in $scope.product.uom (uom means units of measure). For my purposes this is very handy since I want access to the entire object.

Defaulting to an Value

This works beautifully until an edit page is shown. When displaying data from the server, the dropdown shows a blank selection even though $scope.product.uom contains an object with all the correct values!

The problem is that Angular matches based on object references, not object contents. This can be illustrated thus:

var a = {foo: "bar"};
var b = {foo: "bar"};
var c = a;

Variables a and b contain two separate objects that by chance have attributes with the same values. Variables a and c contain the same object pointer.

In the example above, Angular will recognize the value in $scope.product.uom only if it points to an object in the master list $scope.units. The fact that the server-supplied object has identical attributes is irrelevant — Angular only cares whether the object pointers are identical.

To get around this, when an object is loaded from the server for editing, the lookup values are replaced with pointers to the corresponding objects in the dropdown list. An unsophisticated but functional bit of code to perform this substitution might be:

// Wrapper function to retrieve a product
// from the server, keyed on productId.
apiProduct.lookup(productId, function(product) {
    $scope.product = product;

    // Replace the server-supplied lookup value
    // with the matching value
    // in the $scope.units array.
    $scope.product.uom = lookup_by_code(product.uom.code, $scope.units);

function lookup_by_code(code, data) {
    for(var i=0; i<data.length; i++)
        if(data[i].code == code)
            return data[i];

    return null;


There is a JSFiddle that demonstrates the value/reference problem concisely.

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Upgrading Node.js using npm

The Node.js ecosystem provides a tool to update Node from within npm called, simply, “n”.

Install n thus:

sudo npm cache clean -f
sudo npm install -g n

I don’t know that clearing the cache is actually necessary, but a number of people have recommended doing so.

Update to the latest version of node using:

sudo n stable

n allows node versions to be changed easily. The n package listing has details.

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Strange npm Errors

I’ve gotten some strange errors with npm which were resolved by clearing npm’s cache. The brute force method is:

sudo npm cache clean -f

This falls under the same category as strange C/C++ behaviour resolved by removing all .o files, strange Python behaviour resolved by removing all .pyc files. Caching or otherwise keeping around intermediaries is a boon for speed, but can bite when the cache gets stuffed up.

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How to Access a Local Node Server Using Websockets


The AngularJS web application that I’m working on runs on a remote server, but needs to access laboratory instruments connected to the local computer that is running the web browser. JavaScript running in the web browser runs in a sandbox and is prohibited from accessing local hardware.

We explored several possibilities of how to work around this and found a fairly simple solution. The local computer runs a small Node.js program to act as glue between the instrument and the local web browser. Node.js communicates with the instrument’s USB serial port using the Node serialport plugin.

Node also runs express to serve up a simple AngularJS web application for diagnostics. We also connect to the express instance to provide an interactive communication pipeline between the Node.js program and the main web application.

The Problem Space

One of the traditional iron clad security paradigms of web programming is that JavaScript served up from a server cannot access another server. This works for nearly all web sites, but there are instances where being able to share resources across servers is desirable. For example, if our web app can communicate with local laboratory instruments it’s a big win for my client.

The Approach

The W3C has published Cross-Origin Resource Sharing specifications which provide a standardized method for doing this. To implement this, the non-origin server (in our case, the Node.js server) has to provide HTTP headers to the web browser indicating that it will accept the cross-origin request.

If these headers are missing, the web browser will not complete the HTTP request. For example, Firefox 29 — in its debug console — will report

Cross-Origin Request Blocked: The Same Origin Policy disallows reading the remote resource at http://localhost:8888/ This can be fixed by moving the resource to the same domain or enabling CORS.

This means that the web browser is denying access to Node.js running on localhost because (a) it is a different destination than the original server (the origin) and (b) the Node.js server is not granting permission for the cross-origin request.

Thus the problem boils down to coaxing to provide those headers when the web browser connects.

The Snag

I have not been able to get this to work on version 1.0 and higher. To avoid wasting time I reverted to pre-1.0 thus:

npm install --save"<1.0"

In the Node.js program’s main app.js, I added one line to allow connections from any cross-origin server (see line 2 below). Note that this is development code running on an isolated network inaccessible from the Internet. One should think hard before leaving this open to all comers.

var io = require('').listen(server);
io.set('origins', '*:*');

If you look in the source file ./lib/manager.js you’ll see the lines:

  if (origin) {
    headers['Access-Control-Allow-Origin'] = origin;
    headers['Access-Control-Allow-Credentials'] = 'true';

This may prove useful during debugging if adding the set('origins' ... call doesn’t work as expected.

Unanswered Questions

This solution doesn’t appear to work for version 1.0 and higher.


Cross-Origin Resource Sharing official W3C documentation.

Using CORS introduction to CORS.

Enable Cross-Origin Resource Sharing sample code. doesn’t set CORS header(s) on Stackoverflow





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Python 2.7, Django, and MySQL on OS X

For some reason, getting Python and MySQL talking on OS X has been an annoyance. These are my notes for getting the two to talk to each other in a Python 2.7 virtual environment for a Django project.

The Django 1.6 docs recommend using the MySQLdb package. Its installation uses the mysql_config executable.

I have the following set up:

  1. MySQL 5.6.16
  2. Python 2.7.3
  3. PyCharm 3.1.1, which was used to create
  4. a Python virtual environment with pip located in $HOME/upharm27
$ locate mysql_config
$ export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/mysql-5.6.16-osx10.7-x86_64/bin
$ ~/upharm27/bin/pip install mysql-python

I have gcc 4.7.2 available, but curiously, the installer gave the following message:

Installing collected packages: mysql-python
Running install for mysql-python
gcc-4.2 not found, using clang instead

The install succeeded using clang, so it’s nothing more than a curiosity at this point.

I was able to verify that the package was installed with:

$ ~/upharm27/bin/python
Python 2.7.3 (v2.7.3:70274d53c1dd, Apr  9 2012, 20:52:43)
[GCC 4.2.1 (Apple Inc. build 5666) (dot 3)] on darwin
Type "help", "copyright", "credits" or "license" for more information.
>>> import MySQLdb



I just followed these notes using the latest XCode 5.1 on OS X 10.9 and the mysql-python install failed. Apparently the clang Apple ships produces errors on unknown flags by default. I was able do get around this by:

$ export CFLAGS=-Qunused-arguments
$ export CPPFLAGS=-Qunused-arguments
$ ~/upharm27/bin/pip install mysql-python

Thanks to the good folks at StackOverflow. More details may be found here.

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Python 2 to 3 Conversion Notes

A project that I’m working on is being produced with the intention that it will be in production for a very long time — 10+ years. Thus converting from Python 2.7 to Python 3.4 seems to be a wise option to explore.

These are some personal notes regarding the differences between the two versions, supplementing the excellent articles out there. These are based on examining diffs after running 2to3 on the code base.

xrange and range

Contrary to what is implied in many articles, the separate functionality in xrange and range has not been mysteriously merged.The Python 2.7 xrange has been renamed to range. The Python 2.7 range is gone completely. To get the same effect, use

foo = list(range(1, 10))


The 2to3 code tool did this correctly; seeing its effect merely clarified how Python 3 works.


I had to manually go through my objects and straighten out __str__ and __unicode__. This involved:

  1. Deleting __str__ methods which essentially duplicated __unicode__.
  2. Renaming __unicode__ to __str__.


I used __long__ in one object, and simply deleted it since under Python 3 it is a duplicate of __int__.

long() and int()

Similar to __long__, there was one instance where I simply deleted the code associated with long().


I had to manually convert the Python 2.7

super(ClassName, self)




2to3 attempts to convert map() statements to list comprehensions. It did well on most, but screwed up in two places. It might be wise to search for leftover map() statements.


14 May 2014
Added notes for map().



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